Hay meadow restoration project

Hay meadow restoration project

Meadow grasses with trees in background

What was the hay meadow restoration project?

Cumbria has some fantastic hay meadows that have been managed by farmers for generations. Funded by the Heritage Lottery fund, Meadow Life ran from April 2013 until October 2016.

We worked with farmers and small holders to enhance, restore and manage flower rich hay meadows, using traditional practices to increase plant diversity.

We also promoted the landscape of hay meadows through events, educational workshops, walks and talks. We tried to spread the message about how and why we need to preserve our hay meadows and provide opportunities for people to grow to love and value this habitat, its beauty and its place in our landscape.

Nationally, 97% of flower-rich hay meadows have been lost between the 1930s and the mid 1980s.
Meadow Life project
Coronation Meadows project

What are Coronation Meadows?

Coronation Meadows is an exciting project launched by HRH Prince Charles, who called for the creation of at least one new wild flower meadow in every county, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Coronation. The initiative is led by a partnership between Plantlife, The Wildlife Trusts and the Rare Breeds Survival Trust.

This remarkable nationwide project has received funding support from Biffa Award to restore or create a will see a meadow in every county across the UK to mark the anniversary of The Queen’s Coronation.

More meadows will be created using wild flower seed or green hay collected from these Coronation Meadows.

The project Technical Group have put together a number of documents to help facilitate meadow restoration; available as downloads below.

Visit the Coronation Meadows website

Why do hay meadows matter?

Fields of gently waving grasses splashed with purple, yellow and white flowers evoke sleepy summer images all over Britain.

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Flower- rich meadows were once common throughout Cumbria. They change dramatically through the season in their appearance and evoke a romantic notion of farming in harmony with the environment. Sadly, many of these images only exist as memories, as hay meadows have suffered a catastrophic decline. 

Nationally, 97% of flower-rich hay meadows have been lost between the 1930s and the mid 1980s. This was in part due to agricultural intensification converting 'herb meadows' to more productive grasslands, dominated by lush grasses. 

In the Lake District, many meadows were ploughed up during the Second World War so that potatoes could be grown. More recently this has also been done to produce silage as winter animal feed.

Recent surveys suggest that there may be fewer than 10,000 hectares of unimproved meadows left in Britain, and only 1000 hectares of upland hay meadow habitat.

However, there are still pockets of the country where hay meadows are more common because the type of land and the regional climate dictate the use of older farming practices.

In the north of England, traditional meadows are still found in the north Pennines, North Yorkshire and Cumbria. Here some of the higher altitude meadows support specialist plants species, such as wood crane's-bill and many of the lady's mantle species. There are also lowland meadows, characterised by their assemblages of more common plant species.

In addition, roadside verges near fields that have been converted to lush grasslands often act as a reservoir of meadow flower species. It also helps that many land managers are proud of their meadows and very knowledgeable about the species they support and the management required in maintaining them.

Hay meadows are important for the plants they support. A hay meadow can support an incredible 50 plant species/sq. metre! This diversity of plants, with many species coexisting in a small area, has developed over a long period of time and is partly the result of the different rates of growth and development of each species in the meadow. These species are largely stress tolerant rather than fast growing competitive species.

Such a wealth of plant species can in turn provide habitats for many different animal species including the brown hare, insects such as the great yellow bumble bee, and birds such as skylark, curlew, lapwing and twite.

Watch short film

A film by Simon Sylvester highlighting the issues faced in balancing farming for food production and managing land for wildlife.

How did the Meadow Life project make a difference?

Since 2013 Meadow Life has been working with farmers, small holders, community groups, schools, volunteers and members of the public to try and restore, promote and raise awareness of meadows and their management.

Throughout this time we have restored 110 hectares of hay meadows using techniques such as plug planting, green hay spreading and reinstating traditional management techniques. Alongside this we have recruited and trained a small army of volunteers who have surveyed 100 different meadows and 70 verges throughout the county.

The data collected has been analysed and a report written analysing how successful restoration has been and how these restored sites have changed floristically. This data has also helped to analyse how many restored meadows we have of BAP quality habitat within the county.

We have held over 42 public events throughout the past three and a half years, including practical restoration days, scything courses, botanical ID courses, felting workshops and restoration demonstration days.

These have engaged with a wide variety of different people (over 423 attendees) and we hope that it has given many people a better understanding of how wonderful and unique meadows are.

As part of the project we have also delivered educational workshops to schools around Cumbria, focussing on the importance of and threats to hay meadow habitats.

These have been extremely popular and over 866 school children have learnt about meadows as a result. Some of these schools have then gone on to grow their own plug plants and then plant these in local meadows.

Such a wealth of plant species can in turn provide habitats for many different animal species including the brown hare, insects such as the great yellow bumble bee, and birds such as skylark, curlew, lapwing and twite.
Image of roe deer in wildflower meadow - copyright Glynis Bland

Roe deer in a wildflower meadow © Glynis Bland

How wildlife and hay meadows are connected factsheet PDF

Hay meadow walks guide PDF

Hay meadow heritage and wild flower ID leaflet PDF

Cumbria Meadows Network

How you can get involved

As the Meadow Life project started to come to an end many people felt that the momentum and expertise built up over the project should not be lost.

In April 2016 Cumbria Meadows Network (CMN) was set up to enable meadow owners and managers to share knowledge and expertise, and to support each other with information and discussion of management techniques.

There are now over 50 people on the CMN email list and a Steering Group has been set up to guide future activities.

If you would like any further information, or would be interested in helping in any way, please contact CMN via email, or join in the conversation on the Cumbria Meadows Network Facebook page to discuss the challenges, problems and successes in meadow restoration.

A guide to Managing Grasslands for smallholders PDF

How to manage and restore hay meadows PDF

Results from five years of hay meadow restoration in Cumbria 2006 to 2011 PDF